Breast Cancer


What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of breast cells. These abnormal breast cells can grow into surrounding tissues or spread to distant areas of the body.

Statistics

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Incidence rate: 60.9 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 9.3 per 100,000 populations in females

(Hong Kong Cancer Registry, 2018)

Nepal

Nepal

Incidence rate: 15.0 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 7.6 per 100,000 populations in females

(IARC, 2018)

Pakistan

Pakistan

Incidence rate: 43.3 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 23.2 per 100,000 populations in females

(IARC, 2018)

India

India

Incidence rate: 24.7 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 13.4 per 100,000 populations in females

(IARC, 2018)

Signs and Symptoms

  • New lump or thickening in the breast
  • Dimples in the breast
  • Enlarged lymph nodes or a lump in the armpit
  • Discharge from the nipples
  • Pitting of the skin (looks like the skin of an orange)
  • Nipple turns inwards into the breast

Risk Factors

Modifiable risk factors

  • Lack of physical activity

Non-modifiable risk factors

  • Family medical History
  • Being obese
  • Getting older
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • Changes in BRCA1 BRCA 2 genes
  • High fat intake (Unhealthy diet)
  • Long term use of hormone replacement therapy
  • Having first child after the age of 35
  • Never had childbirth 
  • History of breast disease
  • Late menopause (after 55 years)
  • Early menstruation (before the age of 12)

Please note: Having above risk factor does not mean that you must have breast cancer – it only means that your risk of developing breast cancer may be higher than average and you should seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Preventive Measures

  • Do regular exercise (30 min every day)
  • No alcohol use
  • Stop smoking
  • Breastfeeding