Say "NO" to Chronic Diseases

Heart Attack

What is heart attack?

Heart attack occurs when there is a sudden loss of blood flow to the heart muscle. Most heart attacks are caused by coronary heart disease.

Coronary heart disease
  • The coronary arteries (vessels that supply blood to the heart) get narrow due to deposition of fatty materials and cholesterol (plaque).
  • When the plaque breaks, it causes a blood clot to form
  • This blood clot blocks the blood flow to the heart leading to heart attack.
Signs and Symptoms
Risk Factors
Modifiable risk factors
Non-modifiable risk factors
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Family medical history
Physical inactivity
Being obese
Unhealthy diet
Excessive alcohol intake
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
How is heart attack diagnosed?

After the initial blood test, several invasive and non-invasive tests can be performed to confirm diagnosis of heart disease.

Non-invasive tests
  • ECG: An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a short test that monitors the electrical activity of the heart on a strip of paper. It takes about 5-10 minutes to perform.
  • Echocardiogram: Echocardiogram is performed to assess heart valves and heart muscles. It is performed by a specialist doctor and takes 15-20 minutes to perform.
  • Chest X-ray: Chest X-ray is performed to determine the cause of shortness of breath and chest pain.
  • Stress test: During a stress test, you will be asked to ride a stationary bicycle, walk or run on a treadmill for several minutes. At the same time doctor will monitor your body’s reaction to exercise as your heart rate increases.
  • Holter monitor: Holter monitor is a device that can monitor heart activity for up to 24 or more hours.
  • CT scan A computed tomography (CT) scan is performed to diagnose several different types of heart diseases, for example, to check for fatty deposit in coronary vessels.
Invasive Test
  • Coronary angiography and cardiac catheterization: A long flexible tube (catheter) is inserted through a blood vessel in your groin or other parts of your body, which is then moved towards your heart to assess coronary artery for any narrowing or blood clot.
Preventive Measures

Stop Smoking

Do regular exercise

Control blood pressure (Hypertension)

Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) Healthy BMI should be between 18.5 – 22.9Kg/m2

Maintain a healthy diet

  • Control cholesterol levels in the blood (hyperlipidemia)
  • Maintain blood sugar levels in the blood (Diabetes mellitus)
Fasting plasma glucose
≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) or
2-h plasma glucose
≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) or
≥ 6.5%