Prostate Cancer


What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate start to grow in an uncontrolled way.

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  • Prostate is a small gland in the pelvis found only in men.
  • It is located between the penis and the bladder and surrounds the urethra.

Statistics

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Incidence rate: 25.5 per 100,000 populations in males

Mortality rate: 4.3 per 100,000 populations in males

(Hong Kong Cancer Registry, 2018)

Nepal

Nepal

Incidence rate: 1.1 per 100,000 populations

Mortality rate: 0.79 per 100,000 populations

(IARC, 2018)

Pakistan

Pakistan

Incidence rate: 6.7 per 100,000 populations in males

Mortality rate: 5.0  per 100,000 populations in males

(IARC, 2018)

India

India

Incidence rate: 4.4 per 100,000 populations

Mortality rate: 2.9 per 100,000 populations

(IARC, 2018)

Symptoms

Prostate cancer and prostate enlargement has similar urinary symptoms.

  • Difficulty or delay in urinating
  • Slow or weak stream of urine
  • Blood in urine 
  • Pain in the lower back and hips

Risk Factors

  • Age: Risk increases with age
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Family medical history
    • If your parent, sibling, or children has prostate cancer, you are at a higher risk of developing the disease.

Please note: Having any of the above risk factors does not mean that you must have prostate cancer – it only means that your risk of developing prostate cancer may be higher than average and you should seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Screening test

Two main tests are performed for prostate cancer screening

  1. Digital rectal exam (DRE): The doctor or nurse inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate to check for anything abnormal.
  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: PSA test is performed to check the level of PSA in the blood.

Department of Health (2017). Prostate cancer prevention and screening. Retrieved at:https://www.chp.gov.hk/files/pdf/5_prostate_cancer_prevention_and_screening_eng.pdf

Preventive measures

  • Eat more vegetables and fruits
  • Do regular exercise (30 minutes every day)
  • Reduce alcohol intake
  • Do not smoke
  • Maintain a healthy body weight