Cervical cancer


What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer_L

Cervical cancer develops as a result of abnormal cell changes at the cervix.

Statistics

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Incidence rate: 7.6 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 1.9 per 100,000 populations in females

(Hong Kong Cancer Registry, 2018)

Nepal

Nepal

Incidence rate: 21.5 per 100,000 populations in females

Mortality rate: 14.3 per 100,000 populations in females

(IARC, 2018)

Pakistan

Pakistan

Incidence rate: 7.3 per 100,000 populations in females

Mortality rate: 5.2 per 100,000 populations in females

(IARC, 2018)

India

India

Incidence rate: 14.7 per 100,000 populations, in females

Mortality rate: 9.2 per 100,000 populations, in females

(IARC, 2018)

Signs and Symptoms

There may not be any symptoms at an early stage

  • Bleeding between regular menstrual cycle
  • Abnormal bleeding such as after sexual intercourse or pelvic examination
  • Menstrual period that lasts longer than usual
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Vaginal discharge with foul smell
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain

Risk factors of cervical cancer include:

  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Weakened immunity
  • Human papillomavirus HPV (major cause of cervical cancer)
  • Use of oral contraceptive for more than 5 years (the risk returns to normal after 10 years of stopping use)
  • Smoking
  • Multiple childbirth and young age at first pregnancy     
  • Having sexual intercourse at an early age

Please note: Having above risk factor does not mean that you must have cervical cancer – it only means that your risk of developing cervical cancer may be higher than average and you should seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Preventive measures

  • Practice safer sex: avoid having multiple sex partners and use condoms
  • Stop smoking
  • Get HPV vaccination before getting sexually active because vaccination provides protection against certain types of HPV.