What is Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer develops as a result of abnormal cell changes at the cervix.
Incidence rate: 7.6 per 100,000 populations, in females
Mortality rate: 1.9 per 100,000 populations in females
(Hong Kong Cancer Registry, 2020)
Incidence rate: 21.5 per 100,000 populations in females
Mortality rate: 14.3 per 100,000 populations in females
Incidence rate: 7.3 per 100,000 populations in females
Mortality rate: 5.2 per 100,000 populations in females
Incidence rate: 14.7 per 100,000 populations, in females
Mortality rate: 9.2 per 100,000 populations, in females
Signs and Symptoms
There may not be any symptoms at an early stage
- Bleeding between regular menstrual cycle
- Abnormal bleeding such as after sexual intercourse or pelvic examination
- Menstrual period that lasts longer than usual
- Heavy menstrual bleeding
- Vaginal discharge with foul smell
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Pelvic pain
Risk factors of cervical cancer include:
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Weakened immunity
- Human papillomavirus HPV (major cause of cervical cancer)
- Use of oral contraceptive for more than 5 years (the risk returns to normal after 10 years of stopping use)
- Multiple childbirth and young age at first pregnancy
- Having sexual intercourse at an early age
Please note: Having above risk factor does not mean that you must have cervical cancer – it only means that your risk of developing cervical cancer may be higher than average and you should seek further medical advice from your doctor.
- Practice safer sex: avoid having multiple sex partners and use condoms
- Stop smoking
- Get HPV vaccination before getting sexually active because vaccination provides protection against certain types of HPV.
- Early detection: regular cervical cancer screening